The main hardness causing ions are Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+) and Bicarbonate (HCO3–). These ions or minerals are normally addressed as scale in the water causing scaling of pipes and equipment.
Iron Removal Plant
Iron removal is a technique used to remove excessive iron and manganese from water. It is normally done by mixing of the water with air followed by sand ﬁltration. Complex bound with humic acids, can be very difﬁcult to remove. In this case oxidation with ozone can be a solution
Reverse Osmosis (RO) Plant
REVERSE OSMOSIS is a process of water ﬁltration, under high pressure, using special membranes to remove suspended, dissolved, bacterial and chemical impurities up to 0.001 micron from water. It is recommended that Reverse Osmosis should not be used if your inlet
Waste Water Treatment
ETP process are summing up of some steps: a) Primary treatment (Physical and chemical): Oil, fatty acids and suspended solids could be removed by Screening, Coagulation, Flocculation, Fluidization, Electrolysis,